The creation and life of a well can be divided up into five segments: Planning, Drilling, Completion, Production, and Abandonment.
Geologists use seismic surveys to search for geological structures that may form oil reservoirs. The classic method includes making underground explosion nearby and observing the seismic response that provides information about the geological structures underground. However, passive methods that extract information from naturally-occurring seismic waves are also utilized. Other instruments such as gravimeters and magnetometers are also sometimes used in the search for petroleum. When extracting crude oil, it normally starts by drilling wells into the underground reservoir. When an oil well has been tapped, a geologist, known on the rig as the “mudlogger,” will note its presence. Historically, in the U.S., some oil fields existed where the oil rose naturally to the surface, but most of these fields have long since been used up, except certain places in Alaska. Often many wells, called multilateral wells, are drilled into the same reservoir, to ensure that the extraction rate will be economically viable. Also, secondary wells may be used to pump water, steam, acids or various gas mixtures into the reservoir to raise or maintain the reservoir pressure, and so maintain an economic extraction rate.Read more